The Long Riders Guild Academic Foundation
Иванов Реворий Васильевич, д.с.-х.н., главный научный сотрудник, зав. лабораторией селекции и разведения лошадей Якутского НИИСХ
Хомподоева Уйгулана Викторовна, к.с.-х.н., старший научный сотрудник лабораторииселекции и разведения лошадей Якутского НИИСХ
Пак Мария Николаевна, научный сотрудник лаборатории селекции и разведения лошадей Якутского НИИСХ
ФГБУН «Якутский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства им. М.Г.Сафронова», 677000, г.Якутск, ул. Бестужева-Марлинского 23/1.
Ivanov Revory Vasilievich, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Chief Researcher, Head. Laboratory of Horse Breeding and Breeding, Yakutsk Research Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Hompodoeva Uygulana Viktorovna, candidate of agricultural sciences, senior researcher at the Laboratory for Horse Breeding and Breeding, Yakutsk Research Institute of Agriculture, Pak Maria Nikolaevna, researcher at the laboratory of breeding and breeding horses of the Yakutsk Research Institute. Federal State Budgetary Institution “Yakutsk Research Institute of Agriculture named after M.G. Safronova ”, 677000, Yakutsk, ul. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky 23/1.
The roots of the Yakut indigenous horse go back centuries, and it rightfully belongs to the ancient breeds. This is evidenced by the remains of a horse excavated by gold miners on the Indigirka River in the 70s of the last century, which according to researchers, was able to locate and graze on vegetation that is under deep snow alongside the mammoths and was similar in skeletal structure to the modern Yakut horse (I.A. Matveev, 2006). This is the only breed in the world that, according to the assumption of many researchers, descended from wild white tundra horses and did not die out like the mammoth or rhino, but has survived to this day. According to the hypotheses of V.L. Seroshevsky (1993), M.I. Rogalevich (1941), M.F. Gabysheva (1957), Yu.N. Barmintseva (1963) the modern Yakut horse was formed as a result of the crossing of representatives of horses brought from the south (Pribaikalye) by the ancestors of the Yakuts with a wild Late Pleistocene horse that survived from the ice age. According to the research of P.A. Lazarev (1980), the Yakut horse is the direct descendant of the wild Pleistocene horse.
The breeding area of the modern Yakut horse on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) extends far beyond the Arctic Circle into the forest-tundra, where the earth’s pole of cold is located, and the “locating and grazing on vegetation under deep snow” period in the year is 7-8 months. The socio-economic significance of the Yakut horse is ensured by the versatility of its use, high adaptive ability with constant grazing and “self-feeding” maintenance, and the biological value of horse meat and mare's milk. In 1987, the Yakut horse was confirmed to be an independent/self sufficient breed, bred by the method of folk selection, by orders of the USSR GOSAGROPROM and the RSFSR, accordingly dated September 2, 1987, No. 680, and dated October 1, 1987, No. 871. According to the results of diligent and cooperative work of scientist-breeders and the practises of horse herders, approved and registered in the State Register of Protected Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation of February 16, 2011, 2 horse breeds – Megezhekskaya and Prilenskaya, as well as 2 types - Kolymskaya and Yanskaya.
The Yakut breed of horses is represented by three inbreed types.
Indigenous type of the Yakut horse breed. Represents a large part of the horses of the Yakut breed, preserving the characteristic features of the native stock, which generally avoided being crossbred with cultural breeds in the 20th century, which was typically undertaken to enlarge the local horse. In their mass, these horses are shallow, but harmoniously stacked. In summer, they are not much different in body type from local breeds of the Mongolian root. In autumn, after feeding and fattening, they stand out for their massiveness and stockiness. The head is of medium size with a straight profile. The neck is short, thick, the withers low, but wide enough. The back is of medium length, the croup is wide. There are horses with shortened and drooping croups. Their chest is deep and relatively wide. Legs are short and strong, with a hoof horn strong without cracks. Some have an X-shaped setting and saber hind legs. The coat of the Yakut horses is mainly gray, of different shades, savras, mousy, bay, red, piebald and less often Chubara. The genetic potential in live weight varies, within stallions - 430-490 kg, and in mares - 415-470 kg.
The number of livestock of indigenous horses of the Yakut breed as of January 1, 2018 amounted to 101,755 heads, including 62,541 mares of 3 years and older. The proportion of indigenous representatives is 55.3% of the total number of horses in the republic. 12 pedigree reproducers who hold a certificate of registration in the state pedigree register of the Russian Federation, initiated the breeding of indigenous horses of the Yakut breed, including: The breeding zone of the indigenous type horses of the Yakut breed includes: Tattinsky, Tomponsky, Ust-Mayskiy, Churapchinsky, Amginsky, Megino-Kangalassky, Ust-Aldansky, Kobyaysky, Gorny, Khangalassky, Namsky, Vilyuskiy, Verkhnevilyusky, Nyuobinsky and Suntarsky districts of the Republic.
Image 1 – Indigenous type (photo from А.N. Ilyin)
Kolyma type of Yakut horse breed. The Kolyma type was approved as a selection achievement by the decision of the FGU “State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Selection Achievements”. Patent for selection achievement - No. 5772, with priority date January 26, 2010. Registered in the State Register of Protected Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation from February 16, 2011. The number as of 01.01.2016 amounted to 3745 horses, with a specific weight -2.1% of the total number of horses in the republic. The genetic potential in live weight for stallions is 440-530 kg, for mares - 430-520 kg.
The Kolyma type is purebred Yakut horses, the ancestors of which are descended from indigenous breed, and were bred as a result of many years of selective breeding. These are typically northern horses, improved by directional selection. According to their climatic and food conditions, the northern regions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are among the most favourable for herding and breeding horses. Horse breeding conditions in these areas are different from livestock technologies in the central and Vilyuyskiy districts. In Kolyma, horses are kept under covered canopies in the summer, where smoke pots are arranged to protect horses from countless mosquitoes and midges. From time to time, horses go out to graze and then again go under the canopy, escaping from the attack of blood-sucking insects.
Horses of the Kolyma type are distinguished by a strong constitution, good feeding and fat gaining ability. Their head is massive, with a straight profile, a neck of medium length with well-executed muscles, the withers are medium and wide. The back is straight, of medium length, the croup is long, slightly deflated and rounded. The chest is deep and wide, legs are strong and correctly set. The coat is predominantly gray, in different shades, right down to snow-white.
In order to maintain the genetic purity of the Kolyma type of horses, representing the only consolidated type of horse bred in the world beyond the Arctic Circle, by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) dated December 15, 2015 No. 2437 organized state enterprise "Horse Farm Aleko-Kyuelsky" in the village of Aleko-Kuel of the Srednekolymskogo ulus with the inclusion in its composition of the herd of horses SHPK “Oyusardah” the village of Oyusardah in the amount of 626 horses.
Breeding zones of horses of the Kolyma inbreed type are located along the valleys of the Kolyma and Alazey rivers, in the Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky and Abyysky districts.
Image 2 – Kolymskiy type (photo from A.N. Ilyin)
Yansky type of the Yakut horse breed. The Yansky type was approved as a selection achievement by the decision of the FGU “State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Selection Achievements”. Patent for selection achievement - No. 5771, with priority date January 26, 2010. Registered in the State register of protected breeding achievements of the Russian Federation from February 16, 2011. The number as of 01.01.2016 amounted to 18,631 heads, the specific weight -10.5% of the total number of horses in the republic. The genetic potential in live weight for stallions is 450-520 kg, for mares - 420-480 kg. The Yansky type is purebred Yakut horses, the ancestors of which are descended from indigenous breed, was also bred as the Kolyma type, as a result of many years of directed selection of local livestock bred in the valleys of the Yana and Indigirka rivers. In their exterior, horses of this type are similar to their original ancestors, but are more massive and large. Horses of the Yansky type are distinguished by the strength of their constitution, high adaptability to winter cold with the scarcity of vegetation under the snow. This specific feature of horses of this type is achieved due to the hereditarily formed ability to intensively fatten over a short autumn-summer period.
The head of horses of this type is of medium size, with a straight or concave profile, the forehead is wide. The neck is short and thick, the withers are wide and low, the back is medium length, the croup is relatively long and wide. Their chest is wide and deep. Legs are strong, correctly set.
Like all northern horses, representatives of the Yansky type are dominated by light colors: gray and furry of different shades, savras. Yansky-type horses are bred in the stud farm MUP "Sartansky" and in pedigree reproducers:
The breeding areas are Verkhoyansky, Eveno-Bytantaysky, Ust-Yansky, Momsky and Oymyakonsky regions.
Image 3 – Yanskytype (фото А.Н. Ильин)
Megezhekskaya breed of horses. The Megezhekskaya breed was approved by the decision of the Federal State Institution “State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Breeding Achievements”. Patent for selection achievement No. 5773, with priority date 26/01/2010. It is registered in the State Register of Protected Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation of 16.02.2011. The number as of 01.01.2016 amounted to 23,198 horses, the specific weight - 13.1% of the total number of horses in the republic. The genetic potential for live weight in stallions is 470-610 kg, in mares - 450-580 kg.
An important role in the creation of the Megezhekskaya breed was played by the Kuznetsk horse, bred by folk selection in Siberia in the second half of the 19th century. Under the influence of blood surges of Kuznetsk horses, horses of the Megezhekskaya breed developed a pronounced type of meat animals, characterized by large growth, massiveness and elongated body. In the 50s, a limited blood flow of Russian “heavy carriers” was carried out in the genotype of this population.
The horses' heads are relatively large and broad-faced, with wide ganaches and a straight or slightly hunch-faced profile, eyes are lively, ears are short, the neck is of medium length, straight and massive. Withers of medium height, long enough. The back is wide, straight and long, which provides good meat forms. The croup is long, wide with well-developed muscles, the chest is wide and deep, the ribs are rounded. The limbs are strong, with well-defined tendons. The coat is diverse: Savrasai (19.5%), roan (16.9%), bay (16.6%), gray (13.7%) and fleshy (12.3%). Breeding horses of the Megezhek breed are conducted by OAO “Horse Breeding Centre named Stepan Vasiliev "and the breeding reproducer of the SPK" Chappanda "in the Nyurba ulus.
Breeding areas - Nyurbinsky, Suntarsky, Mirny and Lensky.
Image 4 – Megezhekskaya breed (фото А.Н. Ильин)
Prilenskaya breed of horses.The Prilensky breed was approved by the decision of the Federal State Institution “State Commission of the Russian Federation for the Testing and Protection of Breeding Achievements”.Patent for selection achievement No. 5770, with priority date 26/01/2010.It is registered in the State register of protected breeding achievements of the Russian Federation of 16.02.2011. The number as of 01.01.2016 amounted to 13,190 horses, the specific weight -7.5% of the total number of horses in the republic.The genetic potential in live weight for stallions is 450-560 kg, for mares - 450-530 kg.The horses of the Prilensky breed were bred by introducing crossbreeding horses of the Yakut breed with representatives of the factory breeds (the Orlovskovo trotter and the Russian heavy carrier) in the background of some improvement in feeding technology and livestock maintenance. By measurements and live weight they are superior to horses of the Yakut breed and are mainly adapted to local conditions and the applied technology of keeping and feeding.The task set by the breeders of that period to enlarge the local horse by mixing blood with the breeds common in most regions of Russia was carried out with significant costs. Although the representatives of crossbreeds in mass were larger than the local livestock, nevertheless, they turned out to be more demanding on breeding conditions and lost their positions in comparison with their local peers in terms of adaptive ability, reproduction, and preservation of fatness in winter, which is constantly kept in the field of view of breeders. A characteristic feature of the Prilensky breed is the elongation of their body, they have relatively high (like a factory horse) withers.The head is relatively large, somewhat hunchbacked.The neck is medium length, the back is straight and wide.The loin is long and straight, the croup is long and wide, with well-defined muscles. The legs are set correctly, the hoofed horn is strong enough.The coat is mousy, bay, roan, red, piebald, gray of different shades.The Prilensky breed are bred in 2 pedigree reproducers with a certificate of registration in the state pedigree register of the Russian Federation:
The breeding areas are - adjacent to both banks of the Lena River: Namsky, Khangalassky, Olekminsky, Yakutsk and adjacent to the Lena River the Megino-Kangalasskovo and Ust-Aldanskovo uluses.
Image 5 – Prilenskaya breed (фото А.Н. Ильин)
Scientific support of the herd horse breeding industry. In the effective management of the herd industry, the key role has belonged and belongs to the scientific support of the horse-breeding industry.
Research work at the Yakutsk Research Institute of Agriculture is aimed at developing the scientific basis for improving the technology of keeping and feeding horses of the Yakut breed. Work in this area for the first time in the conditions of Yakutia began with a study of the biology of feeding herd horses. For the first time R.V. Ivanov (1982.1988) performed physiological experiments to study the balance of energy, protein and minerals in the body of horses of the Yakut breed under conditions of free grazing in different seasons of the year. To do this, the methodology for the complete collection of excrement and urine has been improved, indirect, indicator methods for studying the balance of energy and nutrients have been tested and improved. The methods for determining the dry matter consumption and digestibility of the main nutrient components of pasture feed were mastered by the method of “nitrogenous stool index”, the use of lignin and chromium oxide, insoluble ash residues in hydrochloric acid [1,2]. In the study of the energy metabolism of horses of the Yakut breed, the direct calorimetric method of gross and digestible energy is used on the V-08 MA calorimeter. Thanks to the application of this technique, the needs and deficiency of energy in the body of horses in critical periods of winter are more accurately established. The norms of energy nutrition for horses of herd content have been specified [3,4]. More accurate data on protein demand and deficiency during critical periods of winter have been established, and the protein nutrition standards for horses of the Yakut breed by season have been improved [5,6]. For vitamin and mineral nutrition, the goal is also to justify the needs and improve feeding standards. A series of experiments were carried out to study the balance of mineral substances in the body, lengthy scientific and economic experiments on feeding various doses of minerals .
To enrich the winter hay-oat diet of young horses up to one year and 1.5 years old, four recipes for protein-mineral-vitamin feed additives have been developed and introduced. The inclusion of feed additives based on local raw materials as a feed for mares, contributed to a marked increase in energy levels, the availability of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. The use of feed additives in winter feeding of mares helps to reduce abortion, stillbirth and mortality of weakly born foals. The business yield of foals is increased by 15-20% [7.8].
A noticeable increase in the business yield of foals is also provided by a specially-developed feed additive for stallions-producers, used during the random campaign.
It should be noted that the metization of Yakut horses with cultural breeds did not have a noticeable genetic effect. The modern Yakut horse exhibits a very high level of inbreeding genetic variability, being the progenitor of the rare alleles ASB 17 D, ASB 17 T. For Yakut horses, as L.V. Kalinkova, I.S. Gavrilicheva, V.G. Osipov, R.V. Ivanov (2015), a typical high frequency of the alleles HTG4M (0.637), VHL20Q 176 (0.205), LEX3M (0.364) and the presence of the private allele HMS3K (0.023) characterize the uniqueness of the genetic structure of the Yakut horse.
A high level of inbreeding genetic variability determines not only unique adaptive qualities, but also high productivity indicators. The main indicator of productivity in herd horses is an indicator of their body weight. The range of fluctuations in the live weight of the Yakut horse is significant and ranges from 380 to 600 kg. Yakut horses have a high lethal yield and carcass meat output. Foal is considered a product of high biological and nutritional value. The uniqueness of the meat of the Yakut horse is in its highest energy intensity, balanced amino acid composition of proteins, vitamins, the presence of bioactive substances and the highest digestibility. You can eat foal without pre-treatment. Foal is also ideal for baby food because of its purity and hypoallergenicity. The foal has been found to have valuable dietary properties in terms of adipose tissue quality. According to the content of medium chain fatty acids (SCFA), as noted by K.M. Stepanov, U.M. Lebedeva, V.T. Vasilieva (2014) lipids foals 6 months. ages approach milk fat lipids. Triglycerides containing SCFA, unlike long chain triglycerides, are faster hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase, do not require the presence of bile acids for their hydrolysis, they are more easily absorbed into the intestinal mucosa cells without preliminary complete hydrolysis, and after absorption they enter directly into the portal vein system, and not into the lymphatic system. All these features of the digestion and absorption of triglycerides with an average length of the FA carbon chain make it possible to assimilate them for various disorders of fat absorption.
The global community is focused on healthy eating and environmentally friendly natural products. In this aspect, horse meat, foal and milk of the Yakut horse are the most environmentally friendly food products.
A sufficiently high level of milk production of Yakut horse mares was established. According to T.V. Ammosova (1971) from medium-dairy Yakut mares horses can be inflated for 2.5-3 months, 300-350 l each, from high-dairy - up to 500 l of marketable milk. The first scientific research on the koumiss production of Yakutia was carried out in 1945-1947 by a comprehensive expedition led by professor M.F. Gabyshev. Yakut methods and methods for the preparation of koumiss and koumiss starter cultures were fully generalized in the materials of the famous ethnographer A.A. Savvinova (1948). In 1998, technological conditions were developed and approved for the Yakut koumiss, prepared on a natural sourdough using the national fermented milk product - sorat. In 2006, the Yakutsk Research Institute of Agriculture received the decision of the Russian Agency for Patents and Trademarks to grant a patent for an invention - a method for preparing the Yakut koumiss. In recent years, in the republic, in connection with the high social significance of koumiss, there has been a revival, preservation and development of its production.
Herd horse breeding in Yakutia as a sector for the production of organic food has a great prospect for the supply of products to other regions, regions of Russia and foreign countries. On the world market, there are no analogues in the production of medicines and biologically active food additives derived from the fat and blood of Yakut horses (MN Slobodchikova, RV Ivanov et al. 2011). The republic has real opportunities to occupy a worthy niche among exporters of meat and products of its processing - these are vast pasture lands that can minimize production costs, the presence of a capacious Chinese market in the neighborhood and, of course, the existing national traditions of horse breeding. The Yakut horse is our living story, witnesses of ancient times and an interesting page of animal husbandry in the Far North. Studies of the Northern Territory of Russia show that under these conditions, the use of just such medium-sized but hardy animals that are universal in use is most economically beneficial. In addition, they are less demanding of the conditions of detention and have a high payment for feed. The digestive apparatus of the local Yakut horse is capable of digesting a large amount of roughage, so it does much, much more work on diets without concentrates than horses of factory breeds. Therefore, none of the specialized factory breeds of horses can exist and work productively in the conditions of the Subpolar region, almost along with reindeer..
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